Order of basic processes involved in succession is?

A. Invasion -> stabilization -> completion and coaction -> reaction -> nudation
B. Nudation -> stabilization -> completion and coaction -> invasion -> reaction
C. Invasion -> nudation -> completion and coaction -> reaction -> stabilization
D. Nudation -> invasion -> completion and coaction -> reaction -> stabilization

Answer

Correct Answer: D. Nudation -> invasion -> completion and coaction -> reaction -> stabilization

Detail about MCQs

The correct order of basic processes involved in succession is:
D. Nudation -> invasion -> completion and coaction -> reaction -> stabilization
Nudation: This is the initial process where a new habitat becomes available, often due to disturbances such as volcanic eruptions, landslides, or glacial retreat. It exposes the substrate for colonization by organisms.
Invasion: Following nudation, pioneer species or organisms colonize the newly available habitat. These are typically fast-growing and adaptable species that can quickly establish themselves in the disturbed area.
Completion and coaction: As succession progresses, the community becomes more diverse and complex. Different species interact and compete for resources, leading to changes in species composition and community structure.
Reaction: The community undergoes further changes in response to environmental factors such as climate, soil development, or biotic interactions. These reactions may lead to further changes in species composition and community dynamics.
Stabilization: Eventually, the community reaches a relatively stable state known as the climax community. This stage is characterized by a dynamic equilibrium where the community structure and species composition remain relatively constant over time.
Therefore, the correct answer is:
D. Nudation -> invasion -> completion and coaction -> reaction -> stabilization

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